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The Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union

Christian Leitz has sent me "a balanced article (in German) from Die Welt (11/7/03) by respected scholar Michael Wolffsohn on the topic:

"Jews and the Russian Revolution (Soviet Union)".

In view of the row over antisemitism in the German army, discussed in an earlier posting, it is significant that Wolffsohn teaches in the army school in Munich.

His point is that Jews in Russia joined the Communist Party because of the oppression and the pogroms of which they were the victims. and that Stalin persecuted the very Jews who have promoted the revolution. Wolffsohn is right.

In Germany, the Jews were assimilated. They were Germans first and Jews second. In Russia, the Jews were not recognized as real Russians. They were "cosmopolitans".

The reason is that in Germany, Protestantism was very much influenced by the Jewish tradition, but there was nothing like Protestantism in Russia. So the first question is not whether Russian Jews supported the Communist revolution, but why was there no Protestant revolution in Russia.

For the full text of the article in German, see

Ronald Hilton - 11.07.03